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Radiation measuring meters using an ionization chamber to measure exposure rates and quantity for a wide- range of radiation emissions (dosimetry). A gas filled chamber contains anode and cathode conducting plates, which create an electric current when gas molecules are ionized. This current is then measured by an electrometer, and displays exposure rates in R/hr and or dose equivalents in Sv/hr.
1. Radiation detectors should detect gamma and x-ray radiation, at minimum, with a response time that is no more than 20 seconds.
2. For detailed calibration requirements of specific survey radiation detector meters, facilities should contact appropriate regulatory agencies.
3. If battery voltage falls below the level to perform adequately, a low-battery alarm - visible or audible - should alert the user. Radiation monitors should also have easily rechargeable batteries.
4. There are new radiation detector designs with large-volume ionization chambers for exposure and dose equivalent measurement.
5. There is a potential for error in exposure measurements whenever the volume of the ionization chamber increases. This is due to recombination losses and polarity effects.
6. An accredited or national radiation detector laboratory should calibrate for proper polarity and minimal recombination loss before any ionization chamber is used for exposure measurements. Failing to do so could lead to a significant error in radiation monitor exposure measurements.